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Lithiasis (Calculus, stone)

When we refer to urinary lithiasis, we are talking about a disease caused by the presence of calculi (stones) found inside the kidneys or urinary tract (ureters or bladder).   In general, urinary lithiasis are formed inside us when urine concentrates, allowing minerals to crystallize and bind together.


The current information that urologists currently have on the knowledge of the pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for the formation of lithiasis, together with the medical history of each patient, allow them to choose the best treatment for the resolution of urinary lithiasis, as well as for the future prevention of the same.

Factors that favor stone formation:

  • Low fluid intake, which generates little desire to urinate.
  • Family history of kidney stones.
  • Previous personal history (if you have already had one or more kidney stones, there is a higher risk of having them form again if not properly treated).
  • Eating a diet high in protein, sodium (salt), and sugar.


They may go unnoticed or cause:

  • Renal colic: Very intense pain in the lower back that may radiate to the abdomen or genitals That may be accompanied by nausea, vomiting, sweating.
  • Hematuria: It is the appearance of blood in the urine. It may be visible to the naked eye or not. It is produced by the lesions produced by the stone in its passage through the urinary tract.
  • Urinary tract infections: Kidney stones can be the cause or the consequence of frequent urinary tract infections.


To prevent the formation of urinary stones it is advisable to: increase the intake of liquids (preferably water), eat a diet with little salt, limit the consumption of meat, sugars and alcohol.

It is important to study the characteristics of urine and perform a blood test to modify possible alterations that are causing the formation of urinary stones.


  • Urinalysis: to look for the presence of blood or pus or small crystals that form the stone.
  • Analysis of the stones expelled or recovered in surgery: in order to know their composition and determine their origin. This will allow the appropriate treatment to prevent the formation of more urinary calculi.
  • Imaging: Abdominal X-ray, abdominal ultrasound and tomography, among other studies, are usually requested.


Medication, usually, depending on the size and other considerations of the lithiasis, medication is usually prescribed as a first measure, so that the patient can expel the urinary lithiasis.

Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, is an outpatient treatment of approximately 45 minutes, which consists of fragmenting the stones and then they are eliminated in the form of areletine through the urine.

Endourological procedures: Minimally invasive surgery for the extraction of urinary calculi.